Strategic Information Systems Plan
As you will appreciate, the Kwangju Bank
strategic model includes much information that is confidential to the Bank. This is
normally documented in detail in the reports produced as a result of processing by Visible Advantage. These detailed
reports are included in the Appendices of the Strategic Information Systems Plan.
However the confidential nature of the reports in
each Appendix precludes their publication on the Internet. A description of the contents
of these reports and their use is documented as part of the Cover Page for each Appendix.
These cover pages have been included below, to illustrate the detailed material documented
in the Appendices of the SISP Report.
A strategic data map shows the data and
information needed by management to support the strategic plan. The data entities needed
to support KJBs strategic planning statements were initially identified in the
strategic model by reviewing high-level planning statements (goals and objectives) to
isolate major data subjects and their inter-relationships. This resulted in a strategic
data model of over 200 entities. The links between each entity and relevant goals and
objectives that they support were then documented. Finally, the elements of the strategic
model are linked to KJBs organizational structure and its functional structure,
allowing subsets of the model to be generated from Visible
Advantage for any area of interest.
The data maps in this Appendix document different
model views of the KJB Strategic Model. Each includes the data required by a number of
activities (documented in Appendix 2) and illustrates the data entities and relationships
needed to support this business activity. A line drawn between two entities indicates that
a relationship exists between them. This relationship is called an association. At
a strategic level, an association represents reporting paths, communication paths,
management controls, audit controls, or other coordination that is required to manage the
operation of parts of the business that refer to entities joined in the association. The
symbols at each end of an association line provide further information about the
association. An association with a "crows foot" (<) indicates many,
whilst the absence of a crows foot indicates one. A zero on the line
(0) indicates optional; a vertical bar (|) indicates mandatory;
while a zero and a vertical bar together (0|) indicate optional becoming
mandatory. For example, the association between MARKET and NEED is an optional many
to mandatory many association (>0|< ). This shows that a MARKET must
have at least one NEED to be of interest to the Bank, while each NEED may be present in
zero, one or many MARKET.
Some data maps have been expanded to show the
names of the attributes within each of the entities. Attributes indicate specific
details stored in entities. In these data maps, the majority of the attributes are being
used as keys to uniquely identify a real-world occurrence of an entity, or to
support the relationships between entities. Keys can be quickly identified in the list of
attributes for each entity, since they are followed by the "#" symbol (e.g. the
attribute market id # in the entity MARKET is a unique identifier for each
market). Attributes that contain additional information about an entity are called non-key
attributes (e.g. the attribute market total profit this period in the entity
As is often the case in a strategic data model,
many of the non-key attributes are not yet documented; only those necessary to uniquely
identify entities and their relationships, or to clarify the meaning of the model and
ensure its completeness, are modelled. For example, to ensure that the strategic model
contains all the entities necessary to accurately model KJBs Key Performance
Indicators (KPIs), it is necessary to identify the non-key attributes required in the
calculation of each KPI. It is also necessary to ensure that the appropriate entities
exist within the strategic model to contain these attributes. But it is not necessary to
identify other non-key attributes within the strategic model at this stage; these will be
defined during tactical and operational modelling of priority activities in the
Clusters are sets of highly cohesive data,
information or knowledge. Each cluster is a separately implementable subset of the data
model that represents the related data entities needed by each business activity or
process. An analysis of the data entities contained in the cluster objectively and
precisely identifies subsets of the data model for which organizational or functional
responsibility can be determined, as well as identifying data frequently shared by
multiple processes and people. A sample cluster (from the Strategic Model) is shown below.
10. MARKET NEED ACTIVITY (derived)
3)MARKET NEED (MARKET NEED ACTIVITY)
4)MARKET PLAN (MARKET PLAN ACTIVITY)
This cluster was derived by Visible Advantage
based on the relationships established between the entities in the following area of the
Strategic Model illustrated at right.
Clusters can have both bold
and non-bold entities. The entities in bold indicate that the data represented by these
entities is required to implement this business activity. The entities that are not in
bold represent other clusters of information that must be considered in the implementation
of the bold entities. These non-bold "embedded" clusters represent prerequisite
cross-functional activities. Each group of non-bold entities of a cluster will also
separately exist as an independent cluster with its entities in bold.
To read, or analyze a cluster, begin with the
last entity in the cluster. This last entity is referred to as the end-point entity.
Read the purpose of the entity as shown in
Appendix 6 - Entity Report. Do the same for each entity above the end-point entity. This
analysis will result in each cluster of entities being provided a name that represents an
activity of the business. In this example, the name of the cluster is MARKET PLAN
ACTIVITY. If we provide a narrative about the cluster as a business activity, it is
developed as described in the body of the SISP report and may read something like this.
"A Marketing Plan is defined for each
market where we operate or plan to operate. This plan addresses the needs of each market,
whether domestic or overseas, for banking and financial products and services. It defines
the current plan and sets Key Performance Indicators to monitor market penetration and
growth over time.
Market needs are determined by regular surveys of
our customers' and prospective customers' requirements for banking and other financial
products and services that we can provide now or in the future.
Our main focus is to support the needs of our
domestic markets (ie. the needs of our loan market for small firms in the Kwangju area).
But our goal for global expansion requires that we also address the needs of overseas
markets; these may be different to those of our domestic markets."
"Our Marketing Plans take these different
market needs into account. They establish firm objectives and strategies in each market
where we plan to operate for market entry, market growth and market penetration - to
achieve the defined KPIs.
To gain competitive advantage from opportunities
offered by Internet technologies, each Marketing Plan will define objectives and
strategies for Electronic Banking and Electronic Commerce. This will help Kwangju Bank
achieve its Global Banking goal. The Internet particularly will enable KJB to enter
overseas markets at low cost, for rapid market growth and penetration."
Once all clusters have been named and described,
you will see that the functions and organizations of KJB have been accurately represented
in the data model. As you look through this appendix, note that several of the entities
shown in this cluster also exist in other clusters. This indicates the overlap of
information requirements across business activities. It indicates cross-functional
activities with shared data, shared processes, or both. This reflects the need for
communication across business activities and organizational units. Addressing shared data
is common to Business Reengineering.
Appendix 3 - Planning Statement Reports
The KJB strategic planning process identified
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOTs). Goals were defined and
objectives were then developed to monitor and guide the achievement of each goal. Key
Performance Indicators (KPIs) provide more detailed targets.
The first Planning Statement Report in this
Appendix lists the titles of the strategies, KPIs and SWOT components that support each
goal. The title of each statement identifies the goal to which it relates, and also
indicates the type of statement.
The following Planning Statement Reports in this
Appendix give a higher level of detail for each planning statement. These reports show the
text that defines each statement; for goals, objectives and KPIs it also shows the links
defined in Visible Advantage between these statements and the data entities in
the strategic model.
Appendix 4 - Goals and Objectives by Function
A goal is a statement of a future state or a
broad target that the enterprise desires to achieve. Goals describe WHAT milestones the
enterprise will strive to accomplish or progress toward in support of achieving the
Mission of KJB, rather than specifying how.
Objectives and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
are used to define Performance Measures. A performance measure is a quantifiable state or
target against which goals and strategies are measured. As Objectives are defined to
measure the success of business goals and strategies, these performance measures are
incorporated into the objective. Both goals and objectives should indicate what is being
measured (KPI or performance measure), the time frame(s) in which the measure occurs, and
the level to attain (ie, 80%, < 10%).
A business function is a singular on-going group
of related activities in an enterprise. Business functions do not typically have
well-defined beginning and ending points, as do processes and procedures. Rather they are
continuous and cohesive sets of business activity. Examples of business functions include
Human Resources, Financial Management, and Sales/Marketing Management. In many instances,
organizational units have management responsibilities that span several business
The Goals and
Objectives by Business Function matrix indicates the business functions that are involved
in the successful satisfaction of the enterprise goals. Those organization units that
perform these business functions should provide the appropriate personnel to develop
strategies for satisfying the goals and to further identify/refine the specific KPIs
(performance measures). This matrix lists each goal, with the related objectives of the
goal on separate rows, and shows the functions responsible for implementation of those
goals and objectives by ticks in the relevant Model View columns. The linking of goals and
objectives to functions clearly shows, for each row, all of the functions involved in
achieving that goal or objective. Similarly, reading down each function column, all of the
goals that each function supports are apparent.
A functional area represents the data,
information and knowledge that is required to support a specific function of the business.
They are usually defined using the cluster analysis technique described in Appendix 2 -
Cluster Report. These functional areas and descriptions were developed during planning
sessions led by the project team with the business experts. The report lists the areas
(model views) with descriptions of the areas shown to the right of the
Appendix 6 - Activities by Business Function and Business
A Business Activity is a unit of work that can be
performed, managed, or monitored by a business function or organization unit. Business
activities are determined by performing an analysis of the goals, strategies, and
performance measures of the organization. From this analysis, information required to
support these performance measures of the business plans is captured in the form of a data
model. The entities in the data model are grouped together based on the relationships that
must exist between data to support the plans (see Appendix 2 - Cluster Report
description). This group of related data model entities is referred to as a cluster. As
the contents of each cluster are analyzed, a meaningful business name is assigned to the
business activity represented by the contents of entities of the cluster. In conjunction
with this name, a brief description of the activity is created.
As the clusters were analyzed, named and
described, they were informally classified into Business Activities and Databases of
information for use by the business. Business Activities indicate relatively high-volume
business transaction processing, whereas Databases indicate business data stored for later
reference. Business Activities are typically derived from intersecting entities, while
Databases are derived from secondary entities. Names and descriptions are provided for all
clusters, whether they are representative of Business Activities or Databases. As a
description is developed for each cluster, the name of the cluster may need to be changed
to more accurately represent the description.
No activities or databases have yet been
allocated to business functions. This is clearly apparent when you view the matrix in this
appendix. An initial assignment to functions will need to be made: perhaps initially
assigned by the planning team, for review by management. This matrix should be completed
to indicate those functions which have responsibility for, or which have an interest in,
different activities or databases. Once this allocation has been made, the Business
Activity Responsibility by Function can be determined.
Following the matrices in this appendix is a
planning statement report showing the descriptions of each activity or database.
Appendix 7 - Entity Report of the Strategic Model
The entity report in this Appendix documents
every entity in the strategic model, listed in alphabetical order. This report has been
formatted to show fundamental details of each entity (name, type, phase and purpose) along
with a list of the attributes and associations linked to the entity.
The entity name is supplemented by the purpose,
which provides a narrative description of the entity and often provides examples of what
values a real-world occurrence of an entity may contain. Notes are comments that
can be attached to an entity, which often record issues awaiting resolution.
The entity category is a way of
categorizing entities, based upon their function as a component of the strategic data
Attributes indicate specific details stored in
entities. In strategic data model, the majority of the attributes are being used as keys
to uniquely identify a real-world occurrence of an entity, or to support the relationships
between entities. Keys can be quickly identified in the list of attributes for each
entity, since they are followed by the "#" symbol (e.g. the attribute market
id # in the entity MARKET is a unique identifier for each market). Attributes that
contain additional information about an entity are known as non-key attributes
(e.g. the attribute market name in the entity MARKET).
Symbols are used to provide additional
information about an association between two entities. An association with a "crows
foot" (<) indicates many, whilst the absence of a crows
foot indicates one. A zero on the line (0 ) indicates optional;
a vertical bar (|) indicates mandatory; while a zero and a vertical bar
together (0 |) indicate optional becoming mandatory. For example, the
association between MARKET and NEED is an optional many to mandatory many
association (>0|<). This shows that a Market must have at least one
Need, but can have many; while each Need may be held by many Markets, or none. A many to
many association such as this will typically be decomposed through further data modeling
into an intermediate entity (called an "intersecting" entity) and two, one to